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He pointed to the success of the so-called Asian tigers, such as South Korea and Taiwan , which followed a similar developmental framework. Since taking office in , Abiy has pushed for more economic liberalization, opening state companies in areas such as energy, telecommunications, and air travel to foreign investment, though many major industries remain state-run. Multilateral aid has seesawed: Loans and other financing jumped in as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund IMF helped the government launch a poverty reduction program, but they and other donors suspended direct budgetary support to the country following disputed elections in that led to widespread protests and a violent crackdown.
At the same time, Ethiopia has seen a shift away from its traditional reliance on agriculture. Industry, including manufacturing and construction, is also taking on a more prominent role in the economy, accounting now for roughly a quarter of GDP. These include expansive road and rail networks and the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, started in on the Nile River. Many experts consider Ethiopia to be a stabilizing force in the Horn of Africa and a major U. Addis Ababa hosts the headquarters of the African Union AU , a bloc of fifty-five member states, and it has played leading roles in UN peacekeeping operations in neighboring Somalia, Sudan, and South Sudan.
However, Ethiopia has often been challenged by territorial disputes with its neighbors and concerns over border security, apart from its tangled history with Eritrea. In , Ethiopia invaded Somalia, shortly after a precursor to al-Shabab wrested control of Mogadishu, the Somali capital. Ethiopian troops left in , after the creation of an AU peacekeeping mission, though it acknowledged periodically sending troops over the border; it joined the AU effort in Ethiopia hosts some nine hundred thousand refugees—the most of any African country after Uganda.
Abiy, in June talks with Egyptian President Abdel Fatah al-Sisi, vowed to ensure Egypt would maintain its share of the Nile, though details of an agreement were unclear. Roughly a quarter of Ethiopians lived in poverty [PDF] in , according to UN estimates, though this is down from 45 percent of the population fifteen years earlier.
In —18, drought conditions necessitated emergency food assistance for more than ten million people. While humanitarian experts say the government has made progress in preventing such emergencies from turning into famine , food insecurity is an enduring threat. The Global Hunger Index, published annually by the Washington, DC—based International Food Policy Research Institute, ranked Ethiopia out of countries in , based on indicators such as undernourishment and stunted childhood development.
Moreover, ethnic tensions can exacerbate the problem: clashes between Ethiopian Somalis and Oromos in displaced an estimated one million people in areas that were already suffering from drought. The government has made strides, however, in health and education: In the last two decades, under-five child mortality was cut by two-thirds , while primary school enrollment soared from less than three million to more than sixteen million.
AIDS-related deaths have decreased fivefold since peaking in Still, health experts say the country must tackle other major issues, such as high maternal mortality and malnourishment. Brigety II , former U. While the government has lifted some of its controls on the media and legalized several previously banned political organizations, human rights advocates have urged Abiy to address other issues, such as arbitrary detentions and the forced displacements that have come as a result of development projects.
Ethiopia hopes to continue expanding its manufacturing sector, as well as services such as tourism and telecommunications, in a bid to halt a growing job crisis among its youth population. At the same time, persistent drought continues to imperil the livelihoods of millions, particularly people in rural areas. Experts say Addis Ababa faces other economic challenges. It may have to start looking for financing outside of Beijing, which appears to be scaling back its investment over debt concerns.
Cook discusses the regional tensions over Nile River water access driven by construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. International Crisis Group tracks violence across Ethiopia. Blog Post by Rachel B. Vogelstein November 5, Women Around the World. Backgrounder by Jonathan Masters August 12, In Brief by Brad W. Setser August 8, Women and Economic Growth. Skip to main content. The United States thus accepted a developing system of repression and segregation in the South that would take the name Jim Crow and persist for nearly a century. The freed people in the South found their choices largely confined to sharecropping and low-paying wage labor, especially as domestic servants.
Although attempts at interracial politics would prove briefly successful in Virginia and North Carolina, African American efforts to preserve the citizenship and rights promised to black men in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution failed. Congress continued to pursue a version of reform in the West, however, as part of a Greater Reconstruction. The federal government sought to integrate the West into the country as a social and economic replica of the North.
Land redistribution on a massive scale formed the centerpiece of reform. Through such measures as the Homestead and Railroad Acts of , the government redistributed the vast majority of communal lands possessed by American Indian tribes to railroad corporations and white farmers. To redistribute that land, the government had to subdue American Indians, and the winter of saw the culmination of the wars that had been raging on the Great Plains and elsewhere in the West since the end of the Civil War.
Following the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn the previous fall, American soldiers drove the Lakota civil and spiritual leader Sitting Bull and his followers into Canada. They forced the war leader Crazy Horse to surrender and later killed him while he was held prisoner. Sitting Bull would eventually return to the United States, but he died in at the hands of the Indian police during the Wounded Knee crisis. The defeat of the Lakotas and the utterly unnecessary Nez Perce War of ended the long era of Indian wars.
There would be other small-scale conflicts in the West such as the Bannock War and the subjugation of the Apaches, which culminated with the surrender of Geronimo in , but these were largely police actions. The slaughter of Lakota Ghost Dancers at Wounded Knee in did bring a major mobilization of American troops, but it was a kind of coda to the American conquest since the federal government had already effectively extended its power from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The treaty system had officially ended in , but Americans continued to negotiate agreements with the Indians. The goal of these agreements, and American land policy in general, was to create millions of new farms and ranches across the West.
Not satisfied with already ceded lands, reformers—the so-called "Friends of the Indians" whose champion in Congress was Senator Henry Dawes—sought to divide reservations into individual farms for Indians and then open up most or all of the remaining land to whites. The Dawes Act of became their major tool, but the work of the Dawes Commission in extended allotment to the Creeks, Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, and Choctaws in Indian Territory, which became the core of the state of Oklahoma.
Land allotment joined with the establishment of Indian schools and the suppression of native religions in a sweeping attempt to individualize Indians and integrate them one by one into American society. The policy would fail miserably.
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Indian population declined precipitously; the tribes lost much of their remaining land, and Indians became the poorest group in American society. Between and immigrants prompted much more concern among native-born white Americans than did either black people or Indian peoples. During these years there was a net immigration of approximately 7,, people into the United States. During roughly the same period, the population of the country increased by about 27 million people, from about 49 million in to 76 million in Before the immigrants came largely from Western Europe and China.
Taking the period between and as a whole, Germans comprised 28 percent of American immigrants; the British comprised 18 percent, the Irish 15 percent, and Scandinavians 11 percent. Together they made up 72 percent of the total immigration.
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At the end of the century, the so-called "New Immigration" signaled the rise of southern and eastern Europe as the source of most immigrants to America. The influx worried many native-born Americans who still thought of the United States as a white Protestant republic. Many of the new immigrants did not, in the racial classifications of the day, count as white. As the century wore on, they were increasingly Catholic and Jewish.
Immigrants entered every section of the country in large numbers except for the South. They settled in northeastern and midwestern cities and on western and midwestern farms. The Pacific and mountain West contained the highest percentage of immigrants of any region in and The immigrants forged networks that shaped how and where they migrated and the kinds of communities they established.
Chain migrations linked migrants to prior migrants. Early arrivals wrote home to bring family, friends, and neighbors to the United States. Over large swaths of Minnesota, the Dakotas, and elsewhere German was the primary language of daily life. Tensions between immigrants and the native born over the language to be spoken in public schools, Sunday closures of businesses sabbatarianism , and temperance reform often put cultural issues and practices at the center of local and state politics.
Taken together, immigration and the end of Reconstruction triggered an anti-democratic movement to restrict access to the ballot box. They advocated restrictions on voting as a way to check corruption, elevate political culture, and marginalize those—they had in mind immigrants and blacks—whom they thought incapable of meeting the obligations of republican politics. They sought political changes that would make it far more difficult for the poor and immigrants to vote. Over time, through poll taxes, residence requirements, literacy requirements, and more, they would succeed. The mass politics and high voting rates characteristic of late nineteenth-century America would not outlive the era.
Attempts to restrict suffrage were part of a strong political and social backlash against immigrants that developed over the course of the century. The United States welcomed immigrants because they were essential to its growing economy, but nativists opposed immigrants as antithetical to American culture and society. They thought of immigrants as exotic and inassimilable. In certain situations, however, nativists had allies who were immigrants or the children of immigrants.
Workers, both immigrant and native born, often feared that corporations were using contract labor—workers recruited abroad at lower wages than those paid American workers—to undermine American working conditions and the American family, which they defined as a working man whose wife maintained the home. They opposed certain kinds of immigration. One of the forgotten reforms of the period, the Foran Act of , outlawed contract labor, but the law proved difficult to enforce. Alliances of some native-born Americans with some immigrants against other immigrants proved most effective in the case of the Chinese.
Roughly , Chinese immigrated to the United States between and , and they became the personification of both the inassimilable immigrant and the contract worker. Although the Chinese came as free laborers, they were often branded as coolies: abject semi-slaves, whose low standard of living allowed them to thrive on wages that could not support white families. Racists had previously claimed that superior Anglo-Saxons would inevitably replace "inferior" races.
But in the West, while Sinophobes saw the Chinese as exotic and inferior, they also thought the Chinese would triumph over the supposedly superior white men because they were efficient workers.
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Immigrants and the native born formed mobs that attacked the Chinese at Rock Springs, Wyoming, in and expelled them from Tacoma, Washington, in and Seattle in Congress passed ten-year restrictions on Chinese immigration in and and a permanent exclusion act in Late in the nineteenth century, those who opposed immigration from Italy, Hungary, and elsewhere compared those groups to the Chinese. Some immigrants could wrap themselves in the mantle of Americanism if they were "white" and Protestant.
Protestant immigrants, particularly Scandinavians and Scots-Irish, joined the American Protective Association in to restrict Catholic immigration as it rode a larger wave of anti-Catholicism that swept over the country.
Aimed initially at Irish and Catholic schools, anti-Catholicism increased its range as new Catholic immigrants began to arrive. Although not all of them intended to stay, most immigrants came to the United States for economic opportunity. Cheap land and relatively high wages, compared to their home countries, were available regardless of citizenship. The Homestead Act did not require that settlers filing for land be American citizens, and the railroads not only sold their land grants cheaply, they advertised widely in Europe.
The results of this distribution of fertile and largely accessible land were astonishing. Everything in the late nineteenth century seemed to move faster than ever before.
Americans brought more land under cultivation between and million acres than they had since the English first appeared at Jamestown in million acres. Farmers abandoned small, worn-out farms in the East and developed new, larger, and more fertile farms in the Midwest and West.
urmivouler.tk They developed so much land because they farmed extensively, not intensively. In terms of yields per acre, American farmers ranked far below Europe. Maintaining fertility demanded labor, which was precisely what American farmers were bent on reducing. They invested not in labor but in technology, particularly improved plows, reapers, and threshers. With westward expansion onto the prairies, a single family with a reaper could increase acreage and thus production without large amounts of hired labor. Arable free lands grew scarcer during the s, forcing more and more land seekers west into arid lands beyond the 98th meridian.
In many years these lands lacked adequate rainfall to produce crops. During the same period, the percentage of workers employed in agriculture fell. Such statistics seemed to reflect a decline in the importance of farming, but in fact, they reflected its significance and efficiency. Farmers produced more than the country could consume with smaller and smaller percentages of its available labor.
They exported the excess, and the children of farmers migrated to cities and towns.
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Where at the beginning of the century exports composed about 10 percent of farm income, they amounted to between 20 and 25 percent by the end of the century. Migration from rural to urban areas dwarfed both foreign migration and westward migration. The rise of industrial America, the dominance of wage labor, and the growth of cities represented perhaps the greatest changes of the period. Few Americans at the end of the Civil War had anticipated the rapid rise of American industry. As the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics and Labor declared in , wage labor was universal: "a system more widely diffused than any form of religion, or of government, or indeed, of any language.
Skilled workers proved remarkably successful at maintaining their position through the s, but they had to fight to do so. The relatively high wages for skilled workers led employers to seek ways to replace skilled with unskilled or semi-skilled workers. Mechanization provided the best tactic for deskilling work and lowering wages.
Many of the bitterest strikes of the period were attempts to control working rules and to maintain rather than raise wages. Beginning with the Great Railroad Strike of , through the Great Upheaval of that culminated in the slaughter at Haymarket Square, then through the Homestead Strike , Pullman Strike , and more, the largest confrontations often involved violence and the intervention by state or federal governments to repress the strikes. Many of these strikes involved the railroads; the whole economy seemed to revolve around the railroads. At the end of the s the railroads renewed their expansion.
With a brief break in the s, expansion continued at a reckless pace until At the end of more than 20 percent of the , miles of railroad in the United States had been constructed in the previous four years. By the end of the century the railroad corporations rivaled the United States government in size. In the Pennsylvania Railroad had , employees, almost three times the number of men in all the armed forces of the United States.
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Nationally, , people worked for railroads in and nearly , in about 3 percent of the entire work force of the nation. By roughly one-sixth of all capital investments in United States were in the railroads. The railroads powered the industrial economy. They consumed the majority of iron and steel produced in the United States before As late as , steel rails accounted for 90 percent of the steel production in the United States.