There Husserl also attended Friedrich Paulsen 's philosophy lectures. Evidently as a result of his becoming familiar with the New Testament during his twenties, Husserl asked to be baptized into the Lutheran Church in Husserl's father Adolf had died in Herbert Spiegelberg writes, "While outward religious practice never entered his life any more than it did that of most academic scholars of the time, his mind remained open for the religious phenomenon as for any other genuine experience. Although a steadfast proponent of a radical and rational autonomy in all things, Husserl could also speak "about his vocation and even about his mission under God's will to find new ways for philosophy and science," observes Spiegelberg.
Yet already Husserl had felt the desire to pursue philosophy. Then professor Weierstrass became very ill. Husserl became free to return to Vienna where, after serving a short military duty, he devoted his attention to philosophy. In at the University of Vienna he attended the lectures of Franz Brentano on philosophy and philosophical psychology. Stuart Mill , and David Hume. Husserl was so impressed by Brentano that he decided to dedicate his life to philosophy; indeed, Franz Brentano is often credited as being his most important influence, e.
In Husserl married Malvine Steinschneider, a union that would last over fifty years. In their daughter Elizabeth was born, in their son Gerhart , and in their son Wolfgang. Elizabeth would marry in , and Gerhart in ; Wolfgang, however, became a casualty of the First World War. Following his marriage Husserl began his long teaching career in philosophy. He started when he was in as a Privatdozent at the University of Halle. In he published his Philosophie der Arithmetik.
Psychologische und logische Untersuchungen which, drawing on his prior studies in mathematics and philosophy, proposed a psychological context as the basis of mathematics. It drew the adverse notice of Gottlob Frege , who criticized its psychologism.
Ideas General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology by Husserl Edmund
Just prior to this a major work of his, Logische Untersuchungen Halle, — , was published. Volume One contains seasoned reflections on "pure logic" in which he carefully refutes "psychologism". Kant and Descartes were also now influencing his thought. In he became joint editor of the journal Logos. During this period Husserl had delivered lectures on internal time consciousness , which several decades later his former student Heidegger edited for publication.
His important work Ideen  was published in its first issue. In October both his sons were sent to fight on the Western Front of World War I and the following year one of them, Wolfgang Husserl, was badly injured. On 8 March , on the battlefield of Verdun , Wolfgang was killed in action. The next year his other son Gerhart Husserl was wounded in the war but survived.
His own mother Julia died. In November one of his outstanding students and later a noted philosophy professor in his own right, Adolf Reinach , was killed in the war while serving in Flanders. Husserl had transferred in to the Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg Freiburg im Breisgau where he continued bringing his work in philosophy to fruition, now as a full professor. The mathematician Hermann Weyl began corresponding with him in Husserl gave four lectures on Phenomenological method at University College, London in The University of Berlin in called on him to relocate there, but he declined the offer.
In Heidegger dedicated his book Sein und Zeit Being and Time to him "in grateful respect and friendship. A Festschrift to celebrate his seventieth birthday was presented to him on 8 April Despite retirement, Husserl gave several notable lectures. This ' a priori ' interconnection of bodies, given in perception, is what founds the interconnection of consciousnesses known as transcendental intersubjectivity , which Husserl would go on to describe at length in volumes of unpublished writings.
There has been a debate over whether or not Husserl's description of ownness and its movement into intersubjectivity is sufficient to reject the charge of solipsism, to which Descartes, for example, was subject. One argument against Husserl's description works this way: instead of infinity and the Deity being the ego's gateway to the Other, as in Descartes, Husserl's ego in the Cartesian Meditations itself becomes transcendent. It remains, however, alone unconnected.
Only the ego's grasp "by analogy" of the Other e. In , the racial laws of the new Nazi regime were enacted. On 6 April Husserl was suspended from the University of Freiburg by the Badische Ministry of Culture; the following week he was disallowed any university activities.
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Yet his colleague Heidegger was elected Rector of the university on 21—22 April, and joined the Nazi Party. By contrast, in July Husserl resigned from the Deutsche Academie. Later Husserl lectured at Prague in and Vienna in , which resulted in a very differently styled work that, while innovative, is no less problematic: Die Krisis Belgrade The apolitical Husserl before had specifically avoided such historical discussions, pointedly preferring to go directly to an investigation of consciousness.
Merleau-Ponty and others question whether Husserl here does not undercut his own position, in that Husserl had attacked in principle historicism , while specifically designing his phenomenology to be rigorous enough to transcend the limits of history. On the contrary, Husserl may be indicating here that historical traditions are merely features given to the pure ego's intuition, like any other. Does the lifeworld contextualize and thus compromise the gaze of the pure ego, or does the phenomenological method nonetheless raise the ego up transcendent?
Since his university retirement Husserl had "worked at a tremendous pace, producing several major works. After suffering a fall the autumn of , the philosopher became ill with pleurisy. Edmund Husserl died at Freiburg on 27 April , having just turned His wife Malvine survived him. Eugen Fink , his research assistant, delivered his eulogy. Husserl was incorrectly rumoured to have been denied the use of the library at Freiburg as a result of the anti-Jewish legislation of April It was also rumoured that his former pupil Martin Heidegger informed Husserl that he was discharged, but it was actually the previous rector.
In the summer of Husserl had studied carefully selected writings of Heidegger, coming to the conclusion that on several of their key positions they differed: e. In the war-time edition of Heidegger's primary work, Being and Time Sein und Zeit , first published in , the original dedication to Husserl was removed.
This was not due to a negation of the relationship between the two philosophers, however, but rather was the result of a suggested censorship by Heidegger's publisher who feared that the book might otherwise be banned by the Nazi regime. Husserl, of course, had died three years earlier. In post-war editions of Sein und Zeit the dedication to Husserl is restored. The complex, troubled, and sundered philosophical relationship between Husserl and Heidegger has been widely discussed. On 4 May , Professor Edmund Husserl addressed the recent regime change in Germany and its consequences:. The future alone will judge which was the true Germany in , and who were the true Germans—those who subscribe to the more or less materialistic-mythical racial prejudices of the day, or those Germans pure in heart and mind, heirs to the great Germans of the past whose tradition they revere and perpetuate.
After his death, Husserl's manuscripts, amounting to approximately 40, pages of " Gabelsberger " stenography and his complete research library, were in smuggled to Belgium by the Franciscan priest Herman Van Breda. In his first works Husserl tries to combine mathematics, psychology and philosophy with a main goal to provide a sound foundation for mathematics. He analyzes the psychological process needed to obtain the concept of number and then tries to build up a systematical theory on this analysis. To achieve this he uses several methods and concepts taken from his teachers.
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From Weierstrass he derives the idea that we generate the concept of number by counting a certain collection of objects. From Brentano and Stumpf he takes over the distinction between proper and improper presenting. In an example Husserl explains this in the following way: if you are standing in front of a house, you have a proper, direct presentation of that house, but if you are looking for it and ask for directions, then these directions e. In other words, you can have a proper presentation of an object if it is actually present, and an improper or symbolic, as he also calls it one if you only can indicate that object through signs, symbols, etc.
Husserl's Logical Investigations — is considered the starting point for the formal theory of wholes and their parts known as mereology. Another important element that Husserl took over from Brentano is intentionality , the notion that the main characteristic of consciousness is that it is always intentional.
While often simplistically summarised as "aboutness" or the relationship between mental acts and the external world, Brentano defined it as the main characteristic of mental phenomena , by which they could be distinguished from physical phenomena. Every mental phenomenon, every psychological act, has a content, is directed at an object the intentional object.
Every belief, desire, etc. Brentano used the expression "intentional inexistence" to indicate the status of the objects of thought in the mind. The property of being intentional, of having an intentional object, was the key feature to distinguish mental phenomena and physical phenomena, because physical phenomena lack intentionality altogether. Some years after the — publication of his main work, the Logische Untersuchungen Logical Investigations , Husserl made some key conceptual elaborations which led him to assert that in order to study the structure of consciousness, one would have to distinguish between the act of consciousness  and the phenomena at which it is directed the objects as intended.
Knowledge of essences would only be possible by " bracketing " all assumptions about the existence of an external world. These new concepts prompted the publication of the Ideen Ideas in , in which they were at first incorporated, and a plan for a second edition of the Logische Untersuchungen.
From the Ideen onward, Husserl concentrated on the ideal, essential structures of consciousness. The metaphysical problem of establishing the reality of what we perceive, as distinct from the perceiving subject, was of little interest to Husserl in spite of his being a transcendental idealist. Husserl proposed that the world of objects—and of ways in which we direct ourselves toward and perceive those objects—is normally conceived of in what he called the "natural standpoint", which is characterized by a belief that objects exist distinct from the perceiving subject and exhibit properties that we see as emanating from them.
Husserl proposed a radical new phenomenological way of looking at objects by examining how we, in our many ways of being intentionally directed toward them, actually "constitute" them to be distinguished from materially creating objects or objects merely being figments of the imagination ; in the Phenomenological standpoint, the object ceases to be something simply "external" and ceases to be seen as providing indicators about what it is, and becomes a grouping of perceptual and functional aspects that imply one another under the idea of a particular object or "type".
The notion of objects as real is not expelled by phenomenology, but "bracketed" as a way in which we regard objects—instead of a feature that inheres in an object's essence founded in the relation between the object and the perceiver. In order to better understand the world of appearances and objects, phenomenology attempts to identify the invariant features of how objects are perceived and pushes attributions of reality into their role as an attribution about the things we perceive or an assumption underlying how we perceive objects.
The major dividing line in Husserl's thought is the turn to transcendental idealism. In a later period, Husserl began to wrestle with the complicated issues of intersubjectivity , specifically, how communication about an object can be assumed to refer to the same ideal entity Cartesian Meditations , Meditation V. Husserl tries new methods of bringing his readers to understand the importance of phenomenology to scientific inquiry and specifically to psychology and what it means to "bracket" the natural attitude.
The Crisis of the European Sciences is Husserl's unfinished work that deals most directly with these issues. In it, Husserl for the first time attempts a historical overview of the development of Western philosophy and science , emphasizing the challenges presented by their increasingly one-sidedly empirical and naturalistic orientation. Husserl declares that mental and spiritual reality possess their own reality independent of any physical basis,  and that a science of the mind ' Geisteswissenschaft ' must be established on as scientific a foundation as the natural sciences have managed: "It is my conviction that intentional phenomenology has for the first time made spirit as spirit the field of systematic scientific experience, thus effecting a total transformation of the task of knowledge.
Husserl's thought is revolutionary in several ways, most notably in the distinction between "natural" and "phenomenological" modes of understanding. In the former, sense-perception in correspondence with the material realm constitutes the known reality, and understanding is premised on the accuracy of the perception and the objective knowability of what is called the "real world". He identified several different kinds of names. For example, there are names that have the role of properties that uniquely identify an object.
Each of these names expresses a meaning and designates the same object. There are names which have no meaning, but have the role of designating an object: "Aristotle", "Socrates", and so on. Finally, there are names which designate a variety of objects. These are called "universal names"; their meaning is a " concept " and refers to a series of objects the extension of the concept.
The way we know sensible objects is called " sensible intuition ". Husserl also identifies a series of "formal words" which are necessary to form sentences and have no sensible correlates. Examples of formal words are "a", "the", "more than", "over", "under", "two", "group", and so on. Every sentence must contain formal words to designate what Husserl calls "formal categories". There are two kinds of categories: meaning categories and formal- ontological categories. Meaning categories relate judgments; they include forms of conjunction , disjunction , forms of plural , among others. Formal-ontological categories relate objects and include notions such as set, cardinal number , ordinal number , part and whole, relation, and so on.
The way we know these categories is through a faculty of understanding called "categorial intuition". Through sensible intuition our consciousness constitutes what Husserl calls a "situation of affairs" Sachlage. It is a passive constitution where objects themselves are presented to us.
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Your use of the site and services is subject to these policies and terms. Series description. Related series Edmund Husserl Collected Works. Seller Inventory nf Seller Inventory SM Dust Jacket Condition: Good. Author's Preface to the English Edition. Book has some edge and corner wear, or corner bumps, text block edges have darkened, a small amount of marginal notations or underlining in pencil, former owner's name in ink on fep.
Dust jacket shows darkened spine, surface rubbing, edge and corner wear and small chips, mostly to spine head and foot - eight lines of ink notations on DJ inner flap. Condition: Neu. Neuware - Widely regarded as the father of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl's Ideas puts forth his revolutionary argument for phenomenology as the foundation of all philosophy and for experience as the source of all knowledge.
- Ideas General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology by Husserl Edmund.
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His work has heavily influenced some of the greatest contemporary thinkers of all time including Heidegger, Sartre, Levinas, Merleau-Ponty and Derrida, and has dramatically altered the course of Western Philosophy. Has little wear to the cover and pages. Contains some markings such as highlighting and writing. Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with any used book purchases.
BJ16Z36 New Condition. Seller Inventory NEW From: Dale A. Condition: Near Fine. First Edition; 3rd Impression. Translated by R. Boyce Gibson. First Edition, Third Impression. Burgundy cloth, near fine, owner's name on ffep.
Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology (Routledge Classics)
Dustjacket spine panel and folds slightly soiled, very good plus. Dj quoting Church Quarterly Review: "The work, it may be said at once, is a classic. It is one of those books which, in the present writer's opinion, will never be done with. Strong maroon cloth boards, w. Sc Oxon. First published in Gerrman in Author's preface to the English edition. Translator's preface. Analytical index, p. Index to proper names. List of publisher's titles. Published by Prometheus Books About this Item: Prometheus Books, Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition.
Pages and cover are clean and intact. Used items may not include supplementary materials such as CDs or access codes. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting.